The word ‘microbe’ sounds scary to most as we immediately associate them with the germs, the flu, flesh-eating disease, Ebola, you name it. But microbiologist Dr. Jonathan Eisen has given an enlightening TEDTalk that will make you put down the hand sanitizer.
We are covered in a cloud of microbes and these microbes actually do us good much of the time rather than killing us.
The average healthy adult has 10 times as many microbial cells as human cells. So what good things are these microbes doing for us?
1. Microbes play defense. The oodles of microbes that live on and inside us protect us from pathogens simply by taking up SPACE. They occupy the spots that could otherwise be inhabited by harmful microbes, who gain access and thrive in areas where beneficial microbes are deficient. As Eisen explains, “It’s sort of like how having a nice ground cover around your house can prevent weeds from taking over.”
2. Microbes boost the immune system. Researchers at Loyola University demonstrated in a 2010 study how Bacillus, a rod-shaped bacteria found in the digestive tract, binds to immune system cells and stimulates them to divide and reproduce. The research suggests that, years down the road, those with weakened immune systems could be treated by introducing these bacterial spores into the system. These microbes could potentially even help the body fight cancerous tumors.
“…Probiotics are sort of a very, very simple solution. Most of the pills that you can take or the yogurts that you can eat have one or two species in them, maybe five species in them, and the human community is thousands upon thousands of species. So what can we do to restore our microbial community when we have thousands and thousands of species on us?”
3. Microbes protect us from auto-immune diseases. In his TEDTalk, Eisen describes being diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes as a teenager after “slowly wasting away until I looked like a famine victim with an unquenchable thirst.” Because microbes help train the immune system, if the microbiome is thrown out of whack, it can alter the body’s ability to differentiate between itself and foreign invaders. Recent research into Type 1 Diabetes reveals that a disturbance in the microbial community could trigger the disease, in which the body kills cells that produce insulin. In a 2009 study, researchers at Cornell University showed that introducing a benign strain of E. coli into diabetic mice set off a domino effect that led them to produce insulin. The work suggests that, someday, microbial yogurt could replace insulin shots for people with the disease. Microbial disturbances could be at the root of other autoimmune disorders too.
4. Microbes keep us slim. Microbes play an important role in our body shape by helping us digest and ferment foods, as well as by producing chemicals that shape our metabolic rates. Eisen explains, “It seems that disturbances in our microbial community may be one of the factors leading to an increase in obesity.”
5. Microbes detoxify and may even fight off stress. Just as humans breathe in oxygen and release carbon dioxide, microbes in and on us take in toxins and spare us their dangerous effects. A recent study also shows that people feeling intense stress have much less diverse bacterial communities in the gut, suggesting that there is a not-yet-understood interplay between microbes and stress responses.
6. Microbes keep babies healthy. Recent studies have shown that babies born via caesarean section have very different microbiomes than those born the old-fashioned way. Why? Because during the birthing process, babies are colonized with the microbes of their mother, especially substances that aid in the digestion of milk. According to Science News, babies born via C-section are more likely to develop allergies and asthma than children born vaginally.
It’s clear that microbes have major implications for our health. And yet, much more research needs to be done to determine what different microbes do, and whether their disturbance causes ailments or is simply correlated to various health issues.
We should treat it carefully and with respect, and we do not want to mess with it, say by C-sections or by antibiotics or excessive cleanliness, without some real good justification.